Upgrading to Drupal 10 is a pain. There are still many problem in Drupal 10 and especially the contributed modules. Expect a loooooong upgrading procedure!
Here is one that might help you on the way:
The procedure described above works. However the main problem is that the cache needs to be truncated. It can not be done with Drupal it self as it will become non-functional. The best way I have found is to truncate all cache-tables with MYSQL directly.
$ mysql -u <your_user> -p <your_database>
mysql> show tables like '%cache%';
mysql> truncate <tables_from_list_above>;
This might be good for extremely tricky cases:
And as you will need to redo the upgrade many times you need a full backup of your code and your database!